I have had this article planned since the end of 2009 and have had it as a skeleton since then. I wanted to point out the many problems with OS X security and debunk the baseless myth that OS X is somehow more secure. Despite 18 months passing by before I managed to finish it, not much seems to have changed. I think I am publishing at an interesting time however just as malware for OS X is increasing and Apple are starting to put effort into securing OS X with the soon to be released Lion. There is no FUD in this article, just an analysis of the available evidence and some speculation. My motivation to write this article was the hordes of OS X users who are either blind or have been mislead by false advertising into believing OS X is somehow immune to malware and attacks.
It is one of the most prevalent myths among the computer purchasing public and to a lesser extent those who work in IT, that Apple computers are far more secure than their Windows and perhaps Linux counterparts. The word myth is precisely accurate, as OS X and other Apple software is among the most vulnerable software on consumer devices today. Apple have an appalling attitude towards security which often leaves their users highly vulnerable while hyping their products as secure, simply because they are rarely targeted. It is important before going further to note the difference between a distributed attack and a targeted attack. A distributed attack is one not specific to any one machine or network, but will exploit as many machines as it can affected by a particular set of vulnerabilities, of which OS X has had many. An example of a distributed attack is a drive by download, where the target is unknown, but if the target is vulnerable the exploit should work. Distributed attacks are used to infect large amounts of machines easily, which are then generally joined into a botnet to earn cash.
A targeted attack is more specific, where a single machine or network is attacked. A targeted attack is not blind and is specific to the machine being attacked. Distributed attacks such as drive by downloads are impersonal by nature because they must compromise thousands of machines while the motivation behind a targeted attack tends to be more personal, perhaps to steal confidential files or install some sort of backdoor. The argument always seems limited to distributed attacks which admittedly are nowhere near the problem they are for windows. This is more than likely because Apple has a very low market share of PC’s, simply making it less than worthwhile to invest in writing software to attack as many machines as possible when money is the motivation. I go into this in further detail in a later section.
Using a Mac may certainly be a safer choice for a lot of people as despite being vulnerable they are not targeted. However this is not the same as Macs being secure, something Eric Schmidt erroneously advised recently. I may be able to browse impervious to malware on a Mac at the moment, however I personally would not be comfortable using a platform so easily compromised if someone had the motivation to do so. In this article I address just why OS X is so insecure including the technical shortcomings of OS X as well as Apples policies as a company that contribute to the situation.
A trivial approach to security
One of the most annoying claims made by OS X (and Linux) users is that the UNIX heritage results in a far more secure design, making it more immune to Malware. Nothing could be further from the truth. The Unix Design is significantly less granular than that of Windows, not even having a basic ACL. The UNIX design came from a time when security was less of an issue and not taken as seriously as it did, and so does the job adequately. Windows NT (and later OSes) were actually designed with security in mind and this shows. Windows was not such a target for malware because of its poor security design; it is because the security functionality was never used. When everybody runs as Administrator with no password then the included security features lose almost all meaning. Point for point Windows has a more secure design than OS X, and is used properly the damage can be significantly minimized on a Windows machine than on an OS X machine, UNIX heritage or not.
A lot of OS X users seem to have this idea that Apple hired only the best of the best when it came to programmers while Microsoft hired the cheapest and barely adequately skilled, which not least resulted in OS X being a well designed piece of software completely free of vulnerabilities. In reality OS X machines have always been easily exploited and are among the first to be compromised at various security conferences and competitions. The vast majority of exploits that have been publicly demonstrated could have been used to write a successful virus or worm. Given how lax Apple is with security updates and any kind of proactive protection any prospective attacker would have quite a field day. The only reason this has not happened yet is not because Apple is magically more secure, it’s because no one has bothered to take the opportunity. It isn’t like no OS X viruses exist. Even without the poor approach apple takes to security, there would be no basis for claiming the design of OS X is more secure than that of other platforms.
Apple is generally months behind fixing publicly disclosed vulnerabilities, often only doing so before some conference to avoid media reporting. They often share vulnerabilities with core libraries in other UNIX like systems with samba and java being two examples. They are extremely difficult to deal with when trying to report a vulnerability, seemingly not having qualified people to accept such reports. Even if they do manage to accept a report and acknowledge the importance of an issue they can take anywhere from months to a year to actually fix it properly.
People always get caught up in the hype surrounding viruses and how OS X is seemingly impervious while forgetting that that is not the only type of threat. Personally for me, malware is a minor threat with the impact being negligible as long as you follow basic security practices and can recognize when something looks out of place. The idea of someone targeting me specifically on a network either because it is so vulnerable that it is child’s play or because they want something from my machine is far more worrying. This is significantly harder to protect against on OS X when you can’t rely on the manufacturer to issue patches in anything considering a prompt timeframe or even to acknowledge that vulnerabilities exist. Given that this is the Apple philosophy, it is hard to pretend to be safe on an Apple machine.
Examples and details
Every OS except OS X has a full implementation of ASLR, stack canaries, executable space prevention, sand boxing and more recently mandatory access controls. OS X doesn’t even try to implement most of these basic protections and the ones it does, it does poorly. I don’t understand why security folk use OS X at all, given its plethora of problems. Yes, they are pretty and yes it is UNIX and yes you are every safe using it, but given security folks tend to be working on various exploits and research that they would want to keep private, using a platform so vulnerable to targeted attacks would not seem to be the smartest move.
Apple to date do not have a proper DEP or ASLR implementation, two well known technologies that have been implemented in other OSes for the last five years. Apple did not bother to implement DEP properly except for 64bit binaries, and even then there was no protection on the heap even if it was marked as non executable. Apple technically implements ASLR but in a way that they may not have bothered. The OS X ASLR implementation is limited to library load locations. The dynamic loader, heap, stack or application binaries are not randomized at all. Without bothering to randomize anything except library load locations their implementation is useless aside from perhaps preventing some return to libc attacks. We can see using the paxtest program from the PaX team (the same team who initiated ASLR protections on PC’s) that OS X fails most of these tests (Baccas P, Finisterre K, H. L, Harley D, Porteus G, Hurley C, Long J. 2008). Apple’s decision not to randomize the base address of the dynamic linker DYLD is a major failing from a security point of view. Charlie Miller has demonstrated how a ROP payload can be constructed using only parts of the non randomized DYLD binary. Snow leopard unfortunately did not improve on things much except to add DEP protection to the heap, still only for 64 bit applications. This means that most of the applications that ship with OS X (including browser plugins) are far easier to attack than applications on pretty much any other platform.
The firewall functionality in OS X is impressive, but hardly utilized. The underlying technology is ipfw powerful and more than capable of protecting OS X from a wide variety of threats, however Apple barely utilizes it. The OS X firewall is disabled by default and application based meaning it is still vulnerable to low level attacks. Even if the option to block all incoming connections was set it didn’t do this, still allowing incoming connections for anything running as the root user with none of the listening services being shown in the user interface.
Apple introduced rudimentary blacklisting of malware in Snow Leopard via xprotect.pilst, which works so that when files are downloaded via certain applications they set an extended attribute which indirectly triggers scanning of the file. However many applications such as IM or torrent applications do not set the extended attribute, thus never triggering the Xprotect functionality. A fine example of this is the trojan iWorks which was distributed through torrents, and never triggered Xprotect. At the moment it can only detect very few malware items, although as a response to the MacDefender issue this is now updated daily. Only hours after Apple’s update to deal with MacDefender was released a new version that bypasses the protection was discovered, highlighting the shortcomings of the Xprotect approach. Since it relies on an extended attribute being set in order to trigger scanning, any malware writer will target avenues of attack where this attribute will not be set and for drive by download attacks it is completely useless. Still, it is a good first step for Apple acknowledging the growing malware problem on OS X and starting to protect their users.
It has been a shame to see the sandboxing functionality introduced in Leopard not being utilized to anywhere near its full capacity. Apple are in a unique position where by controlling the hardware and the operating system they have creating a truly homogenous base environment. It would be very easy to have carefully crafted policies for every application that ships with the base system, severely limiting the damage that could be caused in the event of an attack. They could go even further and import some of the work done by the SEDarwin team, allowing for even greater control over applications. They would not have to present this to the user and would probably prefer not to yet doing so would put them far ahead of all the other operating systems in terms of security at this point.
Security wise Apple is at the same level as Microsoft in the early 90’s and early 2000’s. Continuing to ignore and dismiss the problems without understanding the risks and not even bothering to implement basic security features in their OS. With an irresponsible number of setuid binaries, unnecessary services listening on the network with no default firewall, useless implementations of DEP and ASLR and a very poor level of code quality with many programs crashing with a trivial amount of fuzzing Apple are truly inadequate at implementing security. This still doesn’t matter much as far distributed attacks go, at least not until Apple climbs higher in market share but I really dislike the idea of someone being able to own my system just because I happened to click on a link. At least with Apple giving regular updates via Xprotect and including a Malware help page in Snow Leopard we have evidence that they are starting to care.
An appalling record
A great example of Apple’s typical approach to security is the Java vulnerability that despite allowing for remote code execution simply by visiting a webpage, Apple left unpatched for more than six months; only releasing a fix when media pressure necessitated that do so. When OS X was first introduced the system didn’t even implement shadow file functionality, using the same password hashing AT&T used in 1979, simply relying on obscuring the password via a pretty interface. This is indicative of the attitude Apple continues to have to this very day, having a horribly secure design at the expense of convenience and aesthetics, only changing when pressure necessitates it. One of the most interesting examples of this is that regularly before the pwn2own contests where Apple’s insecurity is put on display, they release a ton of patches. Not when they are informed of the problem and users are at risk, but when there is a competition that gets media attention and may result in them looking bad.
Being notoriously hard to report vulnerabilities to does not help either. If a company does not want to hear about problems that put their machines and thus customers at risk it is hard to say that they are taking security seriously. As is the case at the moment if you try and report a vulnerability to Apple it will likely get rejected with a denial and after retrying several times it may be accepted, where a patch may be released any number of weeks or months later. Apple still have a long way to go before demonstrating they are committed to securing OS X rather than maintaining an image that OS X is secure. Having a firewall enabled by default would be a start, something Windows has had since XP. Given the homogeneous nature of OS X this should be very easy to get off the ground and it may well be the case with Lion.
The constant misleading commercials are another point against Apple. Constantly misleading users that OS X is secure and does not get viruses (implying that it cannot) or have any security problems what so ever. Not to mention that they exaggerate the problem on Windows machines, they completely ignore the vulnerabilities OS X has. Most recently evidence Apple’s aforementioned attitude can be seen with their initial response to the MacDefender malware. Rather than address the issue and admit that a problem exists they keep their heads in the sand, even going so far as to instruct employees not to acknowledge the problem. To their credit Apple did change their approach a few days later issuing a patch and initiating a regularly updated blacklist of malware. Their blacklist implementation has flaws, but it is a start.
As much as users and fans of Apple may advocate the security of OS X it is very important to note that OS X has never implemented particularly strong security, has never had security as a priority and is produced by a company that has demonstrated over and over that security is a pain which they would rather ignore, leaving their users at risk rather than acknowledge a problem.
Malware for OS X increasing
While it’s true that doomsday for OS X has long been predicted, despite the predictions lacking a precise time reference. An article by Adam O’Donnell has used game theory to speculate that market share is the main cause for malware starting to target a platform, the result of a tradeoff between a lack of protection and a high enough percentage of users to take advantage of to make the investment worthwhile. The article made the assumption that all PC’s were using AV software and assumed an optimistic 80% detection success rate. If the PC defense rate were higher, then OS X would become an attractive target at a much lower market share. According to the article, if PC defenses were at around 90% accuracy, then OS X would be a target at around 6% market share. The estimated percentage from the article is just under 17%, and just as some countries have reached around that number are we starting to see an increase in malware for OS X. It may be a coincidence but I will not be surprised if the trend continues. Given Apple’s horrid security practices and insecurity it’s going to increase quite noticeably unless Apple changes their act. Aside from market share another important factor is the homogeny of the platform, making OS X an extremely ideal target once the market share is high enough.
A lot of people are saying they will believe the time for OS X has come when they see an equivalent to a Code Red type of worm, except that this is never going to happen. Worms shifted from being motivated by fame having a financial motivation, with the most recent OS X malware being linked to crime syndicates. With the security protections available in most OSes these days (aside from OS X) being more advanced it takes more skill to write a virus to infect at the scale of something like Code Red, and the people who do have that skill are not motivated to draw attention to themselves. These days malware is purely about money, with botnets that going out of their way to hide themselves from users. Botnets on OS X have been spotted since 2009 and OS X is going to be an increasing target for these types of attacks without ever making the headlines as Windows did in the 90’s.
Another contributing factor that should not be overlooked is the generally complacent attitude of OS X users towards securing their machines. Never faced with Malware as a serious threat and being shoveled propaganda convincing them that OS X is secure, most OS X users have no idea how to secure their own machines with many unable to grasp the concept that they may be a target for attack. The MacDefender issue already showed how easy it is to infect a large number of OS X users. Windows users are at least aware of the risk and will know to take their computer in to get fixed or to run an appropriate program as where it seems OS X users simply deny the very possibility. As Apple’s market share increases, the ratio of secure users to vulnerable users continues to slide further apart. With more and more people buying apple machines and not having any idea how to secure them or that they even should there are that many more easy targets. Given the insecurity of OS X and the nativity of the users, I do think it is only a matter of time before OS X malware becomes prevalent, although not necessarily in a way that will make the news. This means the problem is going to get worse as users are going to keep getting infected and not realize it while believing their machines are clean and impervious to risk.
People also have to get over the idea that root access is needed for malware to be effective. Root access is only needed if you want to modify the system in some way so as to avoid detection. Doing so is by no means necessary however, and a lot of malware is more than happy to operate as a standard user, never once raising an elevation prompt and silently infection or copying files or sending out data or doing processing, or whatever malicious thing it may do.
Macs do get malware even if it is a significantly smaller amount that what is for windows. Given the emergence of exploit creation kits for OS X it is inevitably malware is inevitably going to increase for OS X. Even if it never gets as bad as it was for Windows in the 90′s it is important not to underestimate the threat of a targeted attack. Rather than encouraging a false sense of security Apple should be warning users that it is a potential risk and teaching users how to look for signs and deal with it. The Malware entry in the Snow Leopard help is a small step in the right direction. There isn’t much Apple can do to prevent targeted attacks, except maybe fixing their OS and being proactive about security in the first place.
Much room for improvement
One thing OS X did get right was making it harder for key loggers to work. As of 10.5 only the root user can intercept keyboards, so any app making use of EnableSecureEventInput should theoretically be immune to key logging. Of course, if remote code execution is possible then that is a very minor concern. This requires the developer to specifically make use of that function, which is automatic for Cocoa apps using a SECURETEXTFIELD. Of course this does not completely prevent keyloggers from working as applications not making use of that functionality will be vulnerable to keylogging, such as was the case with Firefox and anything not using a secure text field. Of course, given the propensity of privilege escalation attacks on OS X it would not be hard to install a keylogger as root. However this is a great innovation and something that I would like to see implemented in other operating systems.
Apple asked security experts to review Lion which is a good sign, as long as they actually take advice and implement protections from the ground up. Security is a process which needs to be implemented from the lowest level, not just slapped on as an afterthought as Apple have tended to do in the past. I think the app store in Lion will be interesting. If Apple can manage to control the distribution channels for software, then they will greatly reduce the risk of malware spreading. At the moment most software is not obtained via the app store and I don’t ever expect it to be, still the idea of desktop users being in a walled garden would be one solution to solving the malware problem.
Lion is set to have a full ASLR implementation (finally) including all 32 bit applications and the heap. As well as more extensive use of sandboxing it looks like Apple is starting to actually lock down their OS, which means they understand the threat is growing. It will be interesting to see if Apple follows through on the claims made for Lion, or if they fall short much like what happened with snow leopard. Personally I think Lion is going to fall short while the malware problem for OS X will get serious, but it won’t be until 10.8 that Apple takes security seriously.
Update 1 – June 28th 2011
Updated minor grammatical mistakes.
It is amazing the knee jerk response I have seen to this article where people start saying how there are no viruses for OS X, which is something I acknowledge above. I guess people don’t care if they are vulnerable as long as there are no viruses? Then people start attacking the claim that OS X has no ACL, which is a claim I never made. I guess the truth hurts and attacking men made of straw helps to ease the pain.
- http://secunia.com/advisories/product/96/?task=statistics – A list of OS X vulnerabilities.
- http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/apple/8550005/Eric-Schmidt-get-a-Mac-if-you-want-to-be-secure.html – Eric Schmidt on OS X.
- http://www.sophos.com/en-us/Search-Results.aspx?search=OSX&refine=1a1e9ea6979a493dba64e1b2ced03044 – A list of OS X viruses from Sophos.
- Baccas P, Finisterre K, H. L, Harley D, Porteus G, Hurley C, Long J, 2008. OS X Exploits and Defense, p. 269-271.
- http://securityevaluators.com/files/papers/SnowLeopard.pdf – Charlie millers talk on snow Leopard security.
- http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9217163/Mac_OS_update_detects_deletes_MacDefender_scareware_ – Apple releases an update to deal with MacDefender.
- http://news.yahoo.com/s/livescience/20110601/sc_livescience/newmacdefenderdefeatsapplesecurityupdate – A variant of MacDefender appeared hours after Apple’s update was released.
http://news.cnet.com/8301-10784_3-9759132-7.html – Charlie Miller talking about setuid programs in OS X.
- http://www.zdnet.com/blog/security/mac-os-x-vulnerable-to-6-month-old-java-flaw/3433 – Apple taking 6 months to patch a serious Java vulnerability.
- http://www.dribin.org/dave/blog/archives/2006/04/28/os_x_passwords_2/ – Apple using password hashing from 1979 in lieu of a shadow file.
- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CHFy6egYcUg – Misleading commercial 1.
- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iPc0NCIZz8s – Misleading commercial 2.
- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cLVS3QVxhDg – Misleading commercial 3.
- http://www.zdnet.com/blog/bott/an-applecare-support-rep-talks-mac-malware-is-getting-worse/3342- Apple representatives told not to acknowledge or help with OS X malware 1.
- http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/43101276/ns/technology_and_science-security/” – Apple representatives told not to acknowledge or help with OS X malware 2.
- http://www.securitymetrics.org/content/attach/Metricon2.0/j3attAO.pdf Adam O’Donnell’s article – When Malware Attacks (Anything but Windows)
- http://royal.pingdom.com/2011/03/16/the-10-most-mac-friendly-countries-on-the-planet/ – OS X market share by region.
- http://www.pcworld.com/article/228961/beware_of_malware_apple_users_even_as_mac_defender_details_emerge.html MacDefender linked to crime syndicates.
- http://www.zdnet.com/blog/bott/crying-wolf-apple-support-forums-confirm-malware-explosion/3351 – Many users hit by MacDefender.
- https://threatpost.com/en_us/blogs/crimeware-kit-emerges-mac-os-x-050211 – The first exploit creation kits for OS X have started appearing.
- http://www.networkworld.com/news/2009/041709-first-mac-os-x-botnet.html” – First OS X Botnet discovered.
- https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=394107 – A Firefox bug report about a vulnerability to keylogging.
- http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9211599/Apple_invites_bug_researchers_to_scrutinize_Lion_OS?taxonomyId=85 – Apple letting security researchers review Lion.
Update 1 – August 17 2011
A delayed update, but it is worth pointing out that this article is basically out of date. Apple has indeed fixed most of the problems with security with their release of Lion. At least this article is an interesting look back, and shows why mac users should upgrade to Lion and not trust anything before it. Despite Lion being technically secure, it is interesting to note that Apple’s security philosophy is still lackluster. Here is an interesting article on the lessons Apple could learn from Microsoft and an article showing just how insecure Apple’s DHX protocol is, and why the fact it is deprecated doesn’t matter.